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List of Dice Patents (until ca. 2007)

I started with the a list at that is now a dead link. I turned each US patent into a clickable link. Then I started looking at patents to add:


US 5,833,237 (Kinetic dice and numbered playing cards ... Cylindrical D3)

US 6,042,116 (Fair, three-sided die ... D3)

US D113,876 "Die or the like" (1939) truncated sphere, or 3-prism with greatly rounded edges and ends

US D235,073 (Game die or Similar Article ... D3)

US D412,537 (Three-sided die)

US D445,140 (One in three probability gaming die)


Canadian Patent: 2,375,239 (LOVE DICE)

US 1,030,554 "Game" (1911) ("spindly" d4)

US 1,602,841 (Map Game ... D4)

US 1,795,562 (Playing Die ... D4?)

US 4,345,761 (Tetrahedral gaming die with recessed pyramidal faces ... D4)

US 4,346,900 (Game board and dice usable therewith ... Multi Sided ... This contains a Wedge D4)

US 4,635,938 "Board Game" (1986) (d4 made from 4 small spheres)

US 4,793,619 (Flip out game and game piece ... D4?)

US 5,004,244 (Memory Game ... D4)

US 5,169,148 (Gaming Apparatus ...Peg Poker D4)

US 5,375,845 (Bridge-type card game with variable trump suit and die ... D4)

US 5,690,331 (Four Faced Die ... THE Wedge D4)

US 5,890,716 (Dice Like Toy ... D4)

US 5,957,452 (Dice-like apparatus and method for consulating the I Ching ... D4)

US 6,109,608 (Playing dice ... Hemispherical D4)

US D233,898 (Game Die or Similar Article ... D4)

US D314,018 (Game Die ... D4)

US D344,767 (Tri-quad dice set ... D4)

US D345,182 (Irregularly shaped dice .. Same one I thought up ... Oh well ... D4)

US D373,603 (Die for playing a board game ... D4)

US D410,038 (Die ... Spherical D4)

US D466,164 (Dice)


US 4,807,883 (Game apparatus and dice construction therefor)

US 6,926,275 (Five sided dice)



Canadian Patent: 2,375,239 (LOVE DICE)

Canadian Patent: 2,444,107 (GAME DICE)

US 164,328 (Game Aparatus ... D6)

US 244,520 (Die ... Poker Die / pipped D6)

US 726,602 (Game Apparatus ... Baseball Dice D6)

US 973,595 (Spherical Dice ... D6)

US 1,026,188 (Game Apparatus ... Baseball Dice D6)

US 1,100,549 (Game ... Interchangable face D6)

US 1,271,551 (Game Apparatus ... Stick D6)

US 1,279,409 (Die ... D6)

US 1,374,243 (Rotatable Dice ... D6)

US 1,412,204 (Game Apparatus ... CUPIDS D6)

US 1,463,388 (Game ... D6)

US 1,464,019 (Game of Chance ... Put and Take D6)

US 1,481,628 (Dice Game ... Poker Dice D6)

US 1,520,010 (Parlor Footbal Game ... D6)

US 1,524,529 (Game Apparatus ... Letter dice D6)

US 1,527,473 (Game of Baseball ... D6)

US 1,527,937 (Baseball Game ... Baseball Dice D6)

US 1,529,598 (Game ... Golf Dice D6)

US 1,539,015 (Dice ... Beveled edged D6)

US 1,546,451 (Game Top ... D6)

US 1,557,352 (Dice Game ... Letter dice D6)

US 1,562,866 (Game Apparatus ... Football Dice D6)

US 1,584,316 (Educational Game ... Letter dice D6)

US 1,587,580 (Game Piece ... Spheroid D6)

US 1,593,907 (Game Device ... "Double Dice" D6)

US 1,598,611 (Game Piece ... D6)

US 1,614,881 (Football Game Board... D6)

US 1,631,505 (Educational Game ... D6)

US 1,668,818 (Dice Game)

US 1,702,760 (Game ... D6)

US 1,747,065 (Game Apparatus... Football Dice D6)

US 2,070,608 (Game... Letter Dice D6)

US 2,148,102 (Bowling Dice Game ... D6)

US 2,151,030 (Game and PLaying Piece therefor ... D???)

US 2,227,406 (Translucent Dice ... Modern Casino Die D6)

US 2,239,779 (Traffic Game ... D6)

US 2,311,453 (Game... D6)

US 2,491,883 (Educational Game Blocks ... Letter Dice D6)

US 2,526,123 (Dice Game Device ... D6)

US 2,560,187 (Combination Card and Dice Game ... Wierd Pipped D6)

US 2,573,916 (Game Top... D6)

US 2,729,451 (Chance Controlled magnetic pieces and board game apparatus ... D6)

US 2,739,815 (Agitatig Receptacle and Game Pieces ... Letter Dice D6)

US 2,987,833 (Reading Blocks ... Word Cubes D6)

US 3,400,932 (Lawn Dice Having Finger Holes ... D6)

US 3,794,326 (Chess game apparatus including dice ... Chess Dice D6)

US 3,799,554 (Cube shaped playing device with adjacent faces displaying adjacent countable indicia ... D6)

US 3,826,498 (Golf Board Game Apparatus ... D6 & D???)

US 3,940,142 (Fold up die construction ... D6)

US 3,944,229 (Golf game ... D6)

US 4,015,850 (Bingo dice game)

US 4,148,488 (Random Selection Apparatus ... D6)

US 4,164,351 (Die-Resembling Game Cube ... D6)

US 4,244,571 (Baseball game apparatus ... Baseball Dice D6)

US 4,258,919 (Five-Suit Game Dice ... Poker Dice D6)

US 4,299,392 (Top dice roulette game ... D6)

US 4,452,588 (Mathematical game apparatus ... Math Dice D6)

US 4,573,688 (Gameboard apparatus with separating die ... Splitable D6)

US 4,585,232 (Automobile board game having unique color code dice ... D6)

US 4,634,125 (Device and method for exchange of trading cards and dice ... Baseball Dice D6)

US 4,678,190 (Set of Dices for Lottery ... D6)

US 4,678,191 (Multiple Dice Game ... D6)

US 4,743,031 (Dice and token game apparatus ... Slot Machine Dice D6)

US 4,813,678 (Board Game with Dice ... D6)

US 4,819,818 (Random Number Generator)

US 4,850,595 (Crossword puzzle game)

US 4,858,931 (Electronic dice)

US 4,874,175 (Lottery dice ... D6?)

US 4,927,147 (Charade and drawing card game using dice ... D6)

US 4,934,700 (Dice word game method ... HEARTS D6)

US 4,962,930 (Method and apparatus for casting an I Ching hexagram ... D6)

US 4,989,879 (Footbal Board Game ... D6)

US 5,000,460 (Golf Game ... D6)

US 5,013,040 (Dice set and method for selecting a set of integers for playing a game of chance ... D6)

US 5,024,440 (Dice a word ... Boggle like D6)

US 5,082,288 (Dice game simulating horseshoe pitching ... Horseshoe Dice D6)

US 5,125,660 (Six-sided game dice with playing card indicia ... Poker Dice D6)

US 5,199,709 (Dice and method for selecting lottery numbers ... D6)

US 5,203,562 (Dice construction)

US 5,234,218 (Dice golf game ... D6)

US 5,364,101 (Casino dice game method)

US 5,388,830 (Method for playing a dice game)

US 5,405,145 (Dice game with wild die ... all but one side blank D6)

US 5,620,183 (Set of dice for producing a range of numerical values and method of use)

US 5,641,165 (Intransitive dice and method of use)

US 5,688,126 (Arithmatic Game ... D6)

US 5,746,428 (Dice marked to permit fair and mathematically simple betting odds in craps ... Cheater D6)

US 6,007,065 (Multi Sided Tapered Dice ... D6 & D8)

US 6,047,967 (Golf Game ... This seems to be THE golf dice Patent D6)

US 6,193,233 (Dice Game ... Soccer diceD6)

US 6,331,145 (Electronic Dice)

US 6,394,903 (Toy dice)

US 6,428,005 (Poker Game ... D6)

US 6,533,275 (Collectible dice ... Harry Potter Dicers)

US 6,557,852 (Cubic sexenary (base 6) dice for generating radom numbers from a predetermined set)

US 6,588,748 (Lighted dice)

US 6,596,351 (Collectible dice and packaging therefor)

US 6,655,688 (Word game)

US 6,669,196 (Public health oriented board game system)

US 6,692,002 (Board game for enhancing word building skills)

US 6,729,619 (Dice game)

US 6,769,688 (Lucky spin dice casino game)

US 7,017,905 (Electronic DIce - Blinky Dice)

US D142,576 (Die ... Interior weighted D6)

US D158,196 (Dice Set ... D6)

US D210,738 (Game Die ... D6)

US D212,631 (Die for a game ... D6)

US D241,452 (Die ... D6)

US D254,558 (Game Die ... Cosmic Wimpout D6)

US D262,725 (Game Die ... Cosmic Wimpout D6)

US D262,726 (Game Dice ... Cosmic Wimpout D6)

US D269,983 (Dice Set ... D6)

US D290,273 (Game Cube ... D6)

US D300,751 (Human figure game die ... D6)

US D304,208 (Lottery Die ... D6)

US D310,850 (Simulative die)

US D310,851 (Simulative die)

US D313,052 (Human figure game die ... D6)

US D353,161 (Novelty die)

US D354,091 (Game Die ... D6)


US D383,799 (Die for a golf Game ... D6)

US D389,874 (Game Piece ... Decision die D6)

US D421,278 (Spinning dice ... D6)

US D436,635 (Game playing die - Crystal Caste)

US D439,932 (Set of rune dice ... D6)

US D44,874 (Die ... Human Figure Die D6)

US D441,806 (Set of dice ... Weather Dice ... D6)

US 4,506,890 (Electronic dice game)

US 4,431,189 (Multi-side selection of an electronically simulated die)



US 1,223,365 "Die" (1916) truncated rhombic hexahedron "...forming the body of the die in such a way that it shall have seven flat sides, with from one to seven spots thereon, which sides are not all of the same size and shape. [...] sides are of such shape and the weight of the body is so distributed, that the chances of any one side being down after a cast, is substantially the same as that of any other side." marked with pips; all faces are parallel to another except the 7-pip side, so if it lands with a point upwards, that's a 7.

US 4,900,034 (Random gambling playing pieces and layout and game table for use with the same ... THE D7)

US 5,150,900 (Heptahedron random character selector ... D7)

US 6,158,738 (Gaming Dice ... dreidel like)

US D313,250 (Seven-sided die)


US 1,480,360 (Game Apparatus ... D8)

US 2,238,079 (Indoor Game ... Golf Game D8)

US 2,976,045 (Rocket to the moon game ... D8?)

US 3,198,523 (Weighted Dice ... D8)

US 3,399,897 (Numerically and Physically Balanced Game Playing Die ... Pipped D8)

US 3,603,593 (I Ching Fortune-Telling Game ... D8)

US 4,566,697 (Western game of skill and risk ... D8)

US 4,717,154 (Dice game ... D8 & D20)

US 4,856,784 (Casino Game ... Put and Take D8)

US 4,989,874 (Lottery selecting dice ... D8 & D9)

US 4,989,875 (Dice having eight faces and process of producing same ... Poker Dice D8)

US 6,007,065 (Multi Sided Tapered Dice ... D6 & D8)

US D25,701 (Poker Dice ... D8)

US D60,575 (Design for a topple die)

US D439,932 (Set of rune dice)

US D516,129 (Binomial die)


US 4,989,874 (Lottery selecting dice ... D8 & D9)


US 614,524 "Game Apparatus" (1897) square bicupola. Five d10s total labelled with 50 of the 52 cards in a standard deck.

US 809,293 "Game Apparatus" (1904) pentagonal trapezohedron ("Each decahedron of course consists of two pyramidal pentahedrons arranged end to end but it will be noted that the faces or planes instead of being triangular in shape are quadrangular and the peripherial edge of the body will be zigzag...") Five d10s total labelled with 50 of the 52 cards in a standard deck.

US 1,520,011 (Parlor Footbal Game ... D10)

US 1,526,803 (Decimal Die ... D10)

US 2,077,010 (Chance Device ... D10)

US 4,239,226 (Random Number Generator ... THE D10)

US D263,607 (Die for game or similar article ... D10)

US D283,632 (Game Die)

US D267,569 "Ten Sided Die" (1981) (Gamescience's d10, differs slightly in shape from 809293)

US D283,632 (Game die ... A neat D10 and also Pipped D10)

US D455,462 (Game Playing Die - Crystal Caste)


US 645,112 (Dice ... Poker Dice D12)

US 1,203,472 "Game Apparatus" (1916) d12 bipyramid "each block is twelve sided and has the numerals from 1 to 12 inclusive inscribed on the respective faces"

US 1,523,615 (Die ... A Pipped D12)

US 2,004,707 (Game ... D12)

US 3,608,905 (Five Dodecahedron Card Indicia Dice ... Poker Dice D12)

US 3,904,208 (Pseudo four dimensional dice and game ... Rhombic D12)

US 3,913,919 (Combination Card and dice utilized with player mats ... Slot Dice D12))

US 3,959,893 (Educational Gaming Apparatus ... D12)

US 4,106,774 (Golf game board assembly ... D26, D18 & D12)

US 4,465,279 (Regular dodecahedron die with opposite faces having identical numbers of indicia ... D12)

US 5,145,175 (Symmetrical dice with card indicia ... Poker Dice D12 & D20)

US 5,224,708 (Symmetrical dice with card indicia ... Poker Dice D12 & D20)

US 5,425,537 (Method for playing a dice game ... D12)

US 5,885,157 (Die, dice game machine, and dice game system ... Hollow D12)

US 6,209,870 (Combination golf dice game and method for playing ... GOLO Golf)

US 6,786,485 (Dice game apparatus and methods for using same ... OTAZOI)

US D246,004 (Dodecahedron astrological die ... D12)

US D246,733 (Dodecahedron die with zodiacal figures ... D12)

US D254,142 (Bowling game die or similar article ... D12)


US 1,419,056 (Die ... Poker Die D14)

US 1,517,433 (Game ... Baseball Dice D18 & D14)


US 1,517,433 (Game ... Baseball Dice D18 & D14)

US 4,106,774 (Golf game board assembly ... D26, D18 & D12)


English Patent: 2,398,513 (Twenty-sided sports or cards dice)

US 1,555,447 (Gaming Device ... Letter D20)

US 1,586,429 (Cross word puzzle game ... D20)

US 3,892,410 (Dice game)

US 4,055,348 (Word Building Game ... Scattergories D20)

US 4,277,065 (Golf game and method for playing the same)

US 4,497,487 (Chance Device ... Lotto Die D20)

US 4,717,154 (Dice game ... D8 & D20)

US 5,145,175 (Symmetrical dice with card indicia ... Poker Dice D12 & D20)

US 5,224,708 (Symmetrical dice with card indicia ... Poker Dice D12 & D20)

US 5,909,874 (Icosahedron decimal dice ... D20)

US 6,318,720 (Random number generator for game playing; and methods - Crystal Caste)

US D209,297 (Game Die ... D20)


French Patent: 2,762,227 (Die for game with twenty four identical surfaces)

US 4,489,946 (Board game having consistent shape relationship among its parts ... Multi sided Including D24)


US 1,054,341 (Game Apparatos ... D26)

US 3,195,895 (Word Game Apparatus comprising Die and Score Card ... D26)

US 4,106,774 (Golf game board assembly ... D26, D18 & D12)


US 1,986,710 (Game Apparatus ... D32)


US D323,684 (Fifty sided die)


US 1,525,023 (Game ... D64?)


US 6,926,276 (Braking system for dice ... D100 Zocchihedron II braking mechanism)

US D303,553 (Spherically shaped game die ... D100 Zocchihedron aesthetic design)


US 2,151,030 (Game and PLaying Piece therefor)

US 2,167,074 (GAME DEVICE)

US 3,826,498 (Golf Board Game Apparatus ... D6 & D???)

US 4,371,165 (Top dice roulette game)

US 5,261,666 (Game Device)

US 5,961,117 (Die for use with a croupier type gaming table)

US D105,803 (Design for a Game Device)

US D299,497 (Game Die)

US D359,312 (Game Die Body)

Multiple Dice in one patent

US 693,821 (Device for playing games of chance ... Multi Sided)

US 1,563,680 (Football Game ... Multi Sided)

US 3,208,754 (A game with Tetrahedron Dice ... THE Polyhedral Dice Patent)

US 3,642,286 (Games with Changable Playing Pieces ... Multi Sided)

US 3,679,212 (Chance readout educational ball ... Multi Sided)

US 3,954,269 (Indiciaed ball having loose interior weight ... Multi Sided)

US 4,314,698 (Action sequencing game)

US 4,524,975 (Football game board ... Hansen's Footbal Fever?)

US 4,524,975 (Football Game Board ... Football Frenzy Multi Sided)

US 4,546,978 (Dice and Games ... Multi Sided)

US 5,018,738 (Spherical dice with interchangeable orientation insert members ... Multi Sided)

US 5,083,793 (Multiple choices mathematical game apparatus ... Multi Sided)

US 5,556,096 (Dice ... Multi Sided)

US 5,601,289 (Chess piece for a three-dimensional vertical stacking chess game ... Chess Dice Multi Sided)

US 5,938,197 (Random number generator for game playing - Crystal Caste)

US 6,123,332 (Random number generator for game playing; and methods - Crystal Caste)

US 6,938,898 (Combination role playing and dice throwing board game)

US D517,612 (Set of dice with markings ... Crystal Caste)

Other Dice-Related Patents

US 4,720,108 (Visual system differentiating identical sums of two numbered dice)

US 4,431,189 (Multi-side selection of an electronically simulated die DRAGONBONE)

US 5,031,913 (Dice game unit)

US 5,449,174 (Rolling dice agitator game)

US 6,609,710 (Device for automatic detection of the number of spots on the top side of a dice for use on a professional basis)

US 6,685,353 (Dice clock with flashing light show for gambling)

US 6,834,855 (Dice Scanner)

US 7,004,836 (Gaming device having a die or dice directly associated with the reels in the primary game ... dice reading sensor)

US D310,110 (Electronic die simulator)

US D320,817 (Dice display unit)

US D331,266 (Dice game)

US D361,096 (Dice tumbler... DICE TOWER)

US D365,126 (Dice scrambler ... DICE TOWER)

US D393,663 (Digital dice system)

US D440,008 (Dice lighter)

US D457,980 (Tumbling dice light)

US D473,171 (Loaded dice shift knob)

US D496,542 (Storage and display container - Crystal Caste)

US D469,733 (Seamless fuzzy hanging dice with on/off vehicle plug-in switch ... lighted fuzzy dice)



US 3,785,651

Glossary and Acronyms

AD&D Advanced Dungeons & Dragons : the same note applies here as with "D&D".

DCC Dungeon Crawl Classics

D&D Dungeons & Dragons : when I use this acronym I refer only to the specific publications by TSR and by Wizards of the Coast listed in that article. Others also use it to refer to the genre in general or some subset of it; for example one might consider OSRIC and DCC to be similar enough that they might say "I play D&D with friends on Tuesdays" even if they really mean that they're playing one of those.

OGL Open Game License, a license attached to certain systems (notably SRD) that allows third-party modules to use the same rules for things like rolling dice to figure out what happens in a combat, so long as they do not copy things like artwork, unique names, trademarks, etc.

OSR Old School Revival (or "Old School Renaissance")

OSRIC Old School Reference and Index Compilation, a recreation of the original AD&D rules

SRD System Reference Document, the OGL version of D&D game mechanics.

Other Dice-Related Pages

Exponentially Distributed Dice

Lucas Garron's "Three Indistinguishable Dice" Problem

Bibliography and References

[17] British Museum, Faceted dice made of stone (object GAA3573)

[18] Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), "Twenty-sided die (icosahedron) with faces inscribed with Greek letters" (Gift of Helen Miller Gould, 1910; Accession Number 10.130.1158).

[19] British Museum, Rock crystal twenty-sided dice (object GAA37287)

[20] EN World forums, The d30 system (discussion thread), 2002.

[21] John H. Kim, RPG System Design (website), 2004.

[22] MS Paint Adventures, Strike back at the midnight crew using awesome dice based technology, 2008.

[23] People Them With Monsters (blog), DCC RPG Resources, 2011

[24] John Savard, Dice of Other Shapes (2011)

[25] Steve Jackson Games Forums, Do GURPS players collect dice?, 2011

[26], History of Dice, 2012.

[27] Suvudu Gaming, Interview of Joseph Goodman by Matt Staggs, 2012

[28] Chaosium, Basic Roleplaying (Introduction), 2014.

[29] Christopher Galpin, Most d20 dice are notably imbalanced, 2014.

[30] Mark Fickett, Dice Roller (robotics project with camera, image recognition software and statistical analysis), 2015.

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